Friday, February 5, 2016

Riots and Rebellions: When is Violence the Answer?

Violence is never the answer to anything. - millions of people
  • The June Rebellion, also known as the Paris Uprising of 1832, was a failure. But without it, we wouldn't have one of the greatest novels and one of the greatest musicals of all-time. (Les Miserables)
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 was crushed. However, I'm not going to be the one to say that the Jewish community should have willingly and peacefully gone to their deaths.
  • There was a rebellion in the late 18th century in America that was quite successful, and another in the mid 19th century which wasn't.
  • Violent protests in the late 19th century led to the 40-hour work week, child labor laws, and safer working conditions for all.
Sometimes, in the course of human events, violence becomes necessary. In my opinion, with a government or society that is willing to listen, non-violence tends to work better. The key question becomes - how long do you wait before you decide that society isn't really willing to listen to you? And who gets to make that decision?

Have any of your ancestors or relatives participated in riots, rebellions, or revolutions?

Here's a list of "incidents of civil unrest" in the United States and another list from Colonial America.
Here's a worldwide list of riots and another worldwide list of revolutions and rebellions.

The difference between a riot and a rebellion can sometimes be a matter of who is writing the history. Some people argue riots are more spontaneous and don't have a unified purpose. However, participants in what society decides to call a 'riot' might argue with whether the event was spontaneous or without a cause.

Do I have kin who participated in civil unrest?

I will ignore late 20th century and more recent unrest, as I may or may not have relatives who participated, but if I did, they, or their close families, are still alive.

I've blogged before about my great grandmother's brother, who appears in some news reports related to the East St. Louis Race Riot of 1917. He wasn't a participant, but testified about the whereabouts of an employee who may have been.

An Elisha Horton is listed among the participants of the Boston Tea Party. He may or may not be related to my Horton ancestors.

Warsaw Ghetto, 1940-1943

When I discovered the Warsaw Ghetto Database, I knew I had to search for my Newmark surname. My Newmark ancestors left the Warsaw area in the 1880s, but were any of these ghetto residents related? If so, what were their roles in the uprising? The closest relation they could  be to me would be second cousins to my grandfather (assuming that my second great grandfather, Samuel Newmark, may have had some brothers in Warsaw.)

Entries for four Neumarks and three Najmarks appear, though there may be some duplicated individuals within them. The database provides details taken from various sources - some lengthy; some short. Some of the Polish has been translated into English already; some hasn't. I went in search of more information on some of the events mentioned. The information wasn't necessarily what I was hoping for - but the decisions ghetto residents had to make certainly weren't easy ones.
  • Lejbus Najmark - Judenrat
  • Stanislaw Najmark
    • Polish: starszy syn autorki , zastrzelony w związku ze sprawą Kotta
    • English: author's elder son, shot in connection with Kott's affair
  • Najmarkowa - [basically: Mrs. Najmark. -owa indicates a married woman] 
    • Polish: żona jednego z dyrektorów Zakładu Zaopatrywania; w getcie warszawskim działała społecznie - organizacja koncertów; w czasie akcji straciła matkę, jeden syn zginął w związku ze sprawą Kotta, drugi na wschodzie, mąż w czasie akcji styczniowej; przeszła na stronę aryjską po I akcji, ukrywała się na Saskiej Kępie; autorka relacji
    • English: wife of one of directors' of the Supply Section; in the Warsaw ghetto she was active socially - organised concerts; during an action she lost mother; one son died in connection with Kott's case, the other one in the East, husband during the January action; she crossed to the 'Aryan side' after the First Action, she hid in Saska Kepa; author of testimony.
  • Juliana (?) Neumark [This appears to be the same woman as Najmarkowa, providing a possible first name, and reinforcing that despite the different spelling, these are matching surnames. The Warsaw Ghetto Database doesn't yet have an English translation, but Google Translate provides a clumsy translation] 
    • Polish: żona Juliana; miała dwóch synów: jeden z synów zginął w styczniu 1940 roku w związku z aferą Kotta, a drugi syn w lutym 1940 roku przepadł podczas przechodzenia granicy sowiecko-niemieckiej pod Bełżcem; pracowała m.in. wraz z aktorem Turkowem w dziale oświaty; jako Elżbieta Kucharska schroniła się po stronie aryjskiej dzięki pomocy Gerarda Gadeyskiego, przedwojennego dyrektora programowego Polskiego Radia, który po wojnie został jej mężem; do niedawna pracowała w Towarzystwie im. Fryderyka Szopena; obecnie mieszka na Saskiej Kępie i jest na emeryturze."
    • English (Google Translate): wife, Juliana; had two sons: one of the sons died in January 1940 in connection with the scandal Kott, a second son in February 1940 was lost when passing the border of the Soviet-German at Belzec; she worked along with actor Turkow in the department of education; as Elizabeth Kucharska refuge on the Aryan side with the help of Gerard Gadeyskiego pre-war Polish Radio program director, who after the war became her husband; Until recently, she worked in the Society of them. Frederic Chopin; now lives in Saska Kepa and is retired.
      • Is it possible instead of Juliana, the Polish actually means: Wife of Julian?
  • Julian Neumark (Intelligentsia)
    • Polish:  serdeczny przyjaciel Jana Kucińskiego; naczelnik działu w Zakładzie Zaopatrywania Dzielnicy Żydowskiej; zginął w styczniu 1943 roku; miał dwóch synów: jeden z synów zginął w styczniu 1940 roku w związku z aferą Kotta, a drugi syn w lutym 1940 roku przepadł podczas przechodzenia granicy sowiecko-niemieckiej pod Bełżcem.
    • English (Google Translate): good friend John Kuciński; Head of department at the Department of Procurement Jewish Quarter; He died in January 1943; He had two sons: one of the sons died in January 1940 in connection with the scandal Kott, a second son in February 1940 was lost when passing the border of the Soviet-German at Belzec.
  • Regina Neumark - Activist; Collaborator of the CKI (Central Commission for Entertainments)
    • [source] "Finally, more resourceful musicians, supported by the Head of the Community, Adam Czerniaków, and his wife Dr Felicja Czerniaków, and Central Commission for Entertainments operating in the ghetto, decided to found the Jewish Symphonic Orchestra (ŻOS). It also had a moral aspect: it kept appearances of "normality”, met the spiritual needs of a vast number of music lovers, gave musicians a chance not only to get minimal resources, but also to remain in good musical condition. Many historians believe that the cultural activity was one of the forms of civil resistance, an activity in the teeth of the extermination actions of the occupier. It is, however, worth mentioning that from mid 1942 the people in ghettos had no idea of the planned extermination in the death camps (apparently they were being transferred to "work camps”) and they still had faith in the intervention of the allies and quick ending of the war."
    • The CKI set up concerts. The entry for Najmarkowa indicates she organized concerts. It's possible these are the same individuals. With the database information coming from multiple sources of testimony lots of redundancy is likely.
  • Wera Neumark - Artists/Writers; A pianist, plays in a concert in 'Gospoda' on 18 March 1942 - represents the old piano school.
Some activists; Some Judenrat. (Some Judenrat-connected activists) The Judenrat (or Jewish council) was set up by the Germans to administer the ghettos.
On the one hand, many viewed these councils as a form of collaboration with the enemy. Others saw these councils as a necessary evil, which would permit Jewish leadership a forum to negotiate for better treatment. In the many cases where Jewish leaders refused to volunteer to serve on the Judenrat, the Germans appointed Jews to serve on a random basis. Some Jews who had no prior history of leadership agreed to serve, hoping that it would improve their chances of survival. Many who served in the Judenrat were arrested, taken to labor camps, or hanged. 
This timeline provides some details on the events mentioned above.

January 1940 ["Kott Affair"]
1 - a decree comes into force forbidding Jews to change their place of residence without special permission.
14-25 - after the arrest of Andrzej Kott (who was of Jewish origin) belonging to the underground group PLAN and his escape from the gestapo, particular repressive measures are taken against the Jewish intelligentsia in Warsaw (255 Jews arrested). 
July 1942 ["First Action"]
22 - the beginning of the great deportation action in the Warsaw ghetto; transports leave from the Umschlagplatz for the gas chambers of Treblinka.
January 1943 ["January Action"]
9  - Himmler arrived for an inspection of the Warsaw ghetto; he ordered the deportation of 8,000 Jews and the evacuation of German enterprises to the Lublin area.
18-21  - the second deportation action in the Warsaw ghetto. The first armed resistance. The Germans deported c. 5,000 people. In January, just after the second deportation action, Józef Szeryński, the commander of the Jewish police, committed suicide.
More on the Kott Affair. [The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War, Martin Gilbert, Macmillan, 1987.]




Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Let it Gleam, Let it Glimmer

Phil didn't see his shadow this morning. The first day of spring will be March 20th. (These two sentences are independent of each other.)

It hasn't always been groundhogs.
One day, in the course of that winter, the sun had come out for a while in the afternoon, but it was the second of February, that ancient Candlmas-day whose treacherous sun, the precursor of six weeks of cold, inspired Matthew Laensberg with the two lines, which have deservedly become classic:

Let it gleam or let it glimmer 
The bear returns into his cave.
(Victor Hugo, Les Miserables, 1862, p. 730)
Bears and groundhogs are both hibernating animals.  I suspect it's a little safer to use groundhogs as official prognosticators. By the time Hugo published Les Miserables, it had already been uncovered that the name of the author of the Almanac of Liege was in doubt.
THE LIEGE ALMANAC

The celebrated almanac of "Francis Moore, physician," to whose predictions thousands are accustomed to look with implicit confidence and veneration, is rivalled, on the continent, by the almanac of Liege, by "Matthew Laensberg," who there enjoys an equal degree of celebrity.

Whether the name of Laensberg is a real or an assumed nаme is a matter of great doubt...The earliest of these almanacs known to exist is of the year 1636. It bears the name of Matthew Lansbert, mathematician, and not Laensberg, as it is now written.

-- The Table Book, W. Tegg, 1827, p. 138




 More on the Candlemas origins of the holiday.

Monday, February 1, 2016

Amanuensis Monday: Myndert Frederickse and Hercules

Amanuensis: A person employed to write what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another.

I continue my project to transcribe family letters, journals, newspaper articles, audiotapes, and other historical artifacts. Not only do the documents contain genealogical information, the words breathe life into kin - some I never met - others I see a time in their life before I knew them.

This week I look at records concerning my 8th great grandfather, Myndert Frederickse(n), and his slave, Hercules. I discussed these records several years ago, but haven't posted the transcriptions.

Source: Albany Chronicles: A History of the City Arranged Chronologically, from the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time; Illustrated with Many Historical Pictures of Rarity and Reproductions of the Robert C. Pruyn Collection of the Mayors of Albany, Owned by the Albany Institute and Historical and Art Society. J. B. Lyon Company, printers, 1906 - Albany (N.Y.), p. 112.

1686…August

Mayor Pieter Schuyler and Common Council hold first session, among the minutes recorded appearing the following transaction: “The court of (the) mayor and aldermen having considered ye case of ye negroe of Myndert Frederikse called Hercules, who hath stole a chest of wampum belonging to ye poor of ye Lutheran parich out of ye house of his master, where he went in at night throw ye window, all which he confesseth, and considering how evil consequence it is and how bad example it is for ye negers, the court have ordered ye sd neger Hercules to be whipt throw ye towne att ye cart tale by ye hands of ye hangman forthwith, for an example to oyrs, and his master to pay ye costs.”

Source: Bi-centennial History of Albany: History of the County of Albany, N.Y., from 1609 to 1886, Volume 2, WW Munsell & Company, 1886, p. 463.

The Mayor’s Court, as it was called, possessed the powers and duties of a Court of Probate of Wills, and those now held by Surrogates. They also decided the time and place of holding elections. The first meeting, or Court, of the Mayor and Aldermen was held at City Hall in Albany, August 31, 1686. It was both a Court of Justice and a meeting of the Mayor and Aldermen for the transaction of municipal business.

Among the legal cases was one of a negro, Hercules, charged by Myndert Frederickse with stealing wampum out of his house, belonging to the churchwarden of the Lutheran Church. The negro, having confessed the theft, was sentenced “to be whipped through ye town at ye carte tale by ye hangman, for an example to others.” His master was ordered to pay the costs.

Source: The Manual of the First Lutheran Church in the City of Albany, First Lutheran Church (Albany, N.Y.)., Samuel P. Sprecher, Thomas Spencer Lloyd, J. Munsell, 1871 - Albany (N.Y.) - p. 102.

Among the early records of the common council we find the following curious entry:
Att a Court of Mayor and Aldermen held for ye Citty of Albany, ye 17th day of August, 1686. Present Peter Schuyler, Jan Jans Bleeker, Johannes Wandel, Dirck Wessels, Adrian Gerritse, Levinus Van Schaik. Hercules, ye negro of Myndert Frederickse being brought before ye Court by warrant of ye Mayr to answer ye fellonious taking out of his master’s house a small chest wherein some bags of wampum was contained, belonging to ye Poor of ye Lutheran Church, and being examined doth confess ye fact yt upon Thursday night last he came to his master’s house, and finding ye window of ye chamber open, went in and stole away ye small chest wherein ye money of ye poor of ye Lutheran Church was kept, and broke ye chest open without ye gate, at ye water side with an axe. Ordered, yt ys sd Negro be committed and secured in ye Common Goale till ye next Court of Sessions, when he is to be brought to his tryall. – Albany Records, III, 4.
Source: Swan of Albany: a history of the oldest congregation of the Lutheran Church in America, Henry Hardy Heins, First Lutheran Church, 1976 - pp 34-35.

It had been hoped by many in both congregations that the new pastor would be able to make it to Albany in time to minister to the venerable Myndert Frederickse in his last illness. He was the sole remaining elder of the Albany congregation, and we have encountered him already in the 1680 accounts of the courtroom scene and the church deed. Old Myndert was a blacksmith from Oldenburg, widely celebrated up and down the river for his craftsmanship, and in addition to his regular business he had been given the post of armorer at Fort Frederick. His home and shop in Albany were on the approximate site of the present office building at 41 State Street. He had an assistant named Hercules, who was once hailed into court (1686) on a charge of stealing the Lutheran Church’s poor box, containing some bags of wampum, from the elder’s home and breaking into it with an axe.

But unfortunately, events conspired to keep Pastor Falckner in New York City until mid-spring…They reached Albany too late, and found that the old blacksmith was dead. Among the treasured possessions in his will, the loyal old churchman had specifically mentioned, “my church book with the silver chain and clasps.”

Notes:

1) The 1871 transcription appears to be an attempt at a faithful transcription of the original court record, down to spelling and abbreviations. The case appears to have been noted in several historical collections because the verdict of the trial was announced at the first meeting of The Mayor's Court on August 31, 1686. However, it appears the case had been previously discussed and sent to trial at a meeting on August 17th, of a court under a different name. Albany was officially chartered as a municipality on July 22, 1686. [source]

2) When I last discussed this, I hadn't found a copy of Swan of Albany, but only had access to snippets of a preview from Google Books. I found a copy not too long after. This isn't the only section of the book with information on Myndert and I will share some other selections later. I assume the amount of text I will quote will be minimal enough to not crossover fair-use guidelines.

3) Swan of Albany uses the word 'assistant' to describe Hercules at Myndert's death. Is that a euphemism or does it indicate my ancestor ultimately freed his slave? I have seen a transcription of Myndert's will, and Hercules isn't mentioned in it. Even if he were to be freed upon Myndert's death, I think that would be stated in the will, suggesting it may well have happened prior.

Sunday, January 17, 2016

Further Coincidence?

Last January I blogged about a mathematical coincidence. For three Jewish kin, there are records claiming alternate birth dates approximately 20 days apart. Adjusting for the 12 days conversion between Julian and Gregorian calendars, this leaves approximately 8 days - which could be explained if one of the dates is actually the date of their Brit Milah. (Covenant of Circumcision).

I didn't mention it last week in the Amanuensis Monday notes, but Max Kruvand's Petition for Naturalization states he was born on August 22, 1897, and his record of birth in Lithuanian records states August 3. So it's now four kin. (Three from Lithuania, one from Poland.)

I am unaware of a religious tradition of observing the anniversary of a brit milah (Outside of Christian tradition - of course, the Feast of the Circumcision could have Jewish roots.) I know that celebrating birthdays was not considered appropriate in traditional European Jewish households. There was the superstition that it was tempting the 'evil eye'. Celebrating any anniversary connected to birth would likely be seen similarly. However, it is conceivable that the date of birth wasn't recorded in some family records, but the Brit Milah would have been, due to its religious significance.

Monday, January 11, 2016

Amanuensis Monday: Petition for Naturalization of Max Kruvand - October 21, 1948

Amanuensis: A person employed to write what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another.

I continue my project to transcribe family letters, journals, newspaper articles, audiotapes, and other historical artifacts. Not only do the documents contain genealogical information, the words breathe life into kin - some I never met - others I see a time in their life before I knew them.

This week I look at the Petition for Naturalization of my grandfather's second cousin, Max Kruvand. This is the first Naturalization petition I have seen where the petition is dependent upon the previous naturalization of a spouse.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
PETITION FOR NATURALIZATION NO. 5867
[Of a Married Person, under Sec. 310(a) or (b), 311, or 312, of the Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1144-1145)

To the Honorable the District Court of the United States at Jacksonville, Florida. This petition for naturalization, hereby made and filed pursuant to Section 310(a) or (b), or Section 311 or 312, of the Nationality Act of 1940, respectfully shows:

1) My full, true, and correct name is Max Kruvand
2) My present place of residence is 1608 Felch Ave., Jacksonville, Duval, Florida
3) My occupation is Merchant
4) I am 50 years old.
5) I was born on August 22, 1897 in Kovno, Lithuania
6) My personal description is as follows: Sex M; Color W, complexion Fair, color of eyes Blue, color of hair Brown, height 5 feet 8 inches, weight 206 pounds; visible distinctive marks None; race White; present nationality Lithuanian
7) I am married; the name of my wife or husband is Molly Schwartz Kruvand, we were married on August 30, 1940 at Elkton, Maryland; he or she was born at Kovno, Lithuania, on January 1, 1900 entered the United States at New York, N.Y on August 23, 1923 for permanent residence in the United States and now resides at 1608 Felch Ave., Jacksonville, Florida and was naturalized on November 14, 1933 in Brooklyn, New York. Certificate No. 3735613
8) I have two children; and the name, sex, date and place of birth, and present place of residence of each of said children who is living, are as follows: Frances, Female, b. 1920 at Kovno, Lithuania, now resides at Miami, Florida; Mark, Male, b. 1923 at St. Louis, Missouri, now resides New Haven, Conn.
9) My last place of foreign residence was Kovno, Lithuania
10) I emigrated to the United States from Vera Cruz, Mexico
11) My lawful entry for permanent residence in the United States was at El Paso, Texas under the name of Max Kruvand on April 20, 1921 on the Automobile as shown by the certificate of my arrival attached to the petition.

Petition filed under Section 311

12) Since my lawful entry for permanent residence I have not been absent from the United States for a period or periods of 6 months or longer, as follows:
13) (Declaration of intention not required)
14) It is my intention in good faith to become a citizen of the United States and to renounce absolutely and forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which at this time I am a subject or citizen, and it is my intention to reside permanently in the United States
15) I am not, and have not been for the period of at least 10 years immediately preceding the date of this petition, an anarchist; nor a believer in the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property, or sabotage; nor a disbeliever in or opposed to organized government; nor a member of or affiliated with any organization or body of persons teaching disbelief in or opposition to organized government.
16) I am able to speak the English language (unless physically unable to do so.)
17) I am, and have been during all of the periods required by law, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States
18) I have resided continuously in the United States of America for the term of two years at least immediately preceding the date of this petition, to wit; since April 20, 1921
19) I have not heretofore made petition for naturalization
20) Attached hereto and made a part of this, my petition for naturalization, are a certificate of arrival from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of my said lawful entry into the United States for permanent residence (if such certificate of arrival be required by the naturalization law), and the affidavits of at least two verifying witnesses required by law.
21) Wherefore, I, your petitioner for naturalization, pray that I may be admitted a citizen of the United States of America, and that my name be changed to No Change of Name
22) I , aforesaid petitioner, do swear (affirm) that I know the contents of this petition for naturalization subscribed by me, that the same are true to the best of my knowledge, except to matters therein stated to be alleged upon information and belief, and that as to those matters I believe them to be true, and that this petition is signed by me with my full, true name: SO HELP ME GOD.
[Signature]

Notes:

1) Max and Molly were both born in Kovno (Kaunas), Lithuania. Max entered the US two years prior to Molly - it is unclear whether the two of them knew each other prior to immigration.

2) This is the first relative I have found that entered the US by automobile. It is unclear how much time Max spent in Mexico.  He indicates the last place of foreign residence was Lithuania, so it is also possible that the didn't actually reside there for any significant portion of time.  However, he also states that he emigrated from Vera Cruz, Mexico, which is a good 1300 miles from the El Paso border. (Max did have cousins who lived in Rosebud, Texas at the time, and they may have provided some assistance in the immigration process.)

3) Max divorced his first wife, Eva, in 1940. The Florida divorce records on Ancestry.com don't provide an exact date.


Thursday, November 12, 2015

Not All Sources Are What They Seem

The source information Ancestry.com provides on some indexes might be misleading. Extremely misleading.

Take for example this one:

England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975




Reading all the above, without following the link to the FamilySearch website, one would likely assume that all the entries originally came from official birth and christening records. It’s an index, so there could be transcription errors. It’s a secondary source. But it is still a transcription from a primary source, right? Or at least a transcription of a transcription since sometimes those vital records get transcribed by churches and governments. Thinking carefully, we may not know how many transcriptions there have been, but somewhere in the distant past there was a primary record. Right?

Let’s go to FamilySearch
“Vital Records Index” seems self explanatory, and sounds like what we expect. But what is the International Genealogical Index?
The IGI contains individual records of birth or christening, marriage, and death or burial for people all over the world. The IGI was first published in 1973 by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; it was then closed in 2008, which means that no more information can be added to the index. The IGI was created from two unique sources: first the entries from the IGI were abstracted and indexed from original vital records by volunteers. The second was community contributed, which means that individuals would add in their own personal family names, which are not always the most accurate.
Nice use of understatement at the end of the description there. Yes, the database at Ancestry which implies that it comes from vital records includes family tree information provided by individuals with no fact checking and no indication of where the information truly came from.

Here’s an Ancestry record from that database for a great-aunt of mine. I don’t have her birth certificate, but I guarantee you that she was not born in England. Those are her parents’ names though, so it’s not an issue of two people with the same name. This is clearly an example of “community contributed” information to the IGI.

Going to Family Search and actually looking up the Film Number, you can find two entries for Minnie Ray. The Alston, Cumberland, England birth, and a San Marcos, Hays, Texas birth. As I said above, I don’t have a birth certificate. And while both entries are likely “community contributed” only one can possibly be correct. Theoretically, both could be wrong in some fashion. However, the San Marcos, Hays, Texas record, even if not 100% correct, puts you closer by a few miles. (Another use of understatement.)


I would be curious how the community contributor made the mistake. My suspicion is that their notes got jumbled and a place of birth for one person got swapped in by mistake. An easy human error to make. The existence of two entries with the same Indexing Project Number and Film Number suggests they may have come from the same contributor, and maybe they were confused about her birth for some reason and had two entries, and they both got submitted to the IGI.

While I was able to find both of these entries at FamilySearch, I believe Ancestry has only used these FamilySearch databases for non-US data. So the Texas entry didn't come up in my search.

Summary:

Not all sources are what they seem. The Ancestry.com international indexes of Select Births and Christenings, Select Births and Baptisms, Select Deaths and Burials, and Select Marriages that cite back to FamilySearch as their original source? Don’t assume the information in these indexes all come from vital records. How much of the data is based on vital records, and how much was community contributed is unclear.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

Veterans Day / Remembrance Day 2015


Caption for photo to left: Human Statue of Liberty. 18,000 Officers and Men at Camp Dodge, Des Moines, Iowa. Colonel William Newman, Commanding. Colonel Rush S. Wells, Directing. Mole & Thomas, 09/1918. (source)

November 11 is Veterans Day in the US, and Remembrance Day in the UK, Canada, Australia, France and Belgium. In Poland it is celebrated as National Independence Day.

Below are the names of ancestors, and their siblings, who I know served their nation's military, either in a time of war, or in a time of peace. I am including my Loyalist ancestors; their nation was Great Britain. Canada became their country after the war. I am including my Confederate ancestors too, despite their desire to form a separate nation. I am also including a Conscientious Objector ancestor since the DAR counts him as a Patriot.

Fifth Great Grandfathers
McGregory Van Every (1723-1786) Loyalist/Butler's Rangers
Michael Showers (1733-1796) Loyalist/Butler's Rangers
Mark Fretz (1750-1840) Patriot (Inactive Duty) Pennsylvania militia

Fourth Great Grandfather
David Van Every (1757-1820) Loyalist/Butler's Rangers (served briefly as a Patriot in the NY militia)

Fifth Great Uncle
Benjamin Van Every (1759-1795) Loyalist/Butler's Rangers (served briefly as a Patriot in the NY militia)
William Van Every (1765-1832) Loyalist/Butler's Rangers
Peter Van Every (1771-bef 1816) Loyalist/Fifth Lincoln and Second York regiments (War of 1812)

Fourth Great Uncles
David Van Every Jr. (1782-1847) Loyalist/Second York regiment (War of 1812)
Michael Van Every (1790-?) Loyalist/Fifth Lincoln and Second York regiments (War of 1812)

Second Great Grandfather
Ebenezer Denyer (1828-1872) (Mexican-American War) (Confederate Army)

Third Great Uncles
Samuel Jennings Denyer (1822-1861) (Gonzales County Minute Men - Republic of Texas -1841)
Samuel T Hartley (1830-1920) (Confederate Army)

Great Grandfather
Samuel Deutsch (1861-1938) (Franz Josef's Austro-Hungarian Army)

Grandfathers
Melvin L Newmark (1912-1992), WWII
Martin J Deutsch (1907-1991), WWII

Great Uncles
Jerry Deutsch (1909-1950), WWII
Allen Deutsch (1914-1988), WWII
Harold Newmark (1915-2003), WWII
Mandell Newmark (1923-1945), WWII (DOI)
Bernard Feinstin (1913-1968), WWII
Seymour Feinstein (1917-1999), WWII

Uncle
Stevan J Newmark (1942-1997) Army Reserves

Photographs of those who served in World War II

My grandfathers Melvin Newmark (1912-1992) and Martin Deutsch (1907-1991)


Allen Deutsch (1914-1988) and Maurice "Jerry" Deutsch (1909-1950).


Harold Newmark (1915-2003) and Mandell Newmark (1923-1945).


Bernard "Benny" Feinstein (1913-1968) and Seymour "Babe" Feinstein (1917-1999)

Wordless Wednesday: William Edgar Geil (1865-1925)

Second cousin of my second great grandfather, Ebenezer Denyer.
 Son of Samuel Geil, whose reminiscences I transcribed a couple weeks ago.
(Move the cursor over the image to read more information [source])
Below is the report of his death: